Buying your first guitar can be very overwhelming. There might be jargon you don't understand and you won't truly know what you are looking for. There are many misconceptions about guitars that you'll need to know about before making your purchase. Hopefully, this will clear the air and make your search go a lot more smoothly.
First off, you have to know what kind of music you are wanting to play. The best guitars to try and purchase are the guitars that can play any genre. Some guitars are made for jazz or for metal, however, you might find yourself limited on what you will be able to play by your guitar. The Fender Stratocaster, also known as a "strat" and the Gibson Les Paul are some of the most popular and among most diverse guitars out there. If you are serious about wanting to learn guitar then don't be afraid to spend the extra money to get a nicer guitar. They can be a little pricey if you're looking for an inexpensive beginner guitar. However, Fender and Gibson both make affordable versions of the Stratocaster and the Les Paul under the names Squier and Epiphone. There are many other routes you can go with but these two guitars are a great starting point.
One of the biggest components about a guitar are its pickups. Pickups, or pups for short, pick up the sound of your strings so you can plug into an amplifier, amp for short, and make a lot of different sounds depending the amplifier. The two most common style of pickups are called a humbucker and a single coil. The main difference between the two pickups are the sounds they make and their voicing. Typically, humbuckers will have a warmer sound and be a little more prominent on the bass sound of the guitar. Single coils will have a brighter sound and often sound thinner. The best way to hear the difference is by looking up sound clips for each guitar. There are also pickups that are known as "active pickups". These are typically used for metal and other genres alike. If that is something you are wanting then you should look for a guitar that has "EMG active pickups".
At all costs, AVOID FLOYD ROSE BRIDGES. They can be very useful for a lot of people but not for beginners. To sum it up, it will cause you a lot of unnecessary pain and headaches because they require a lot of maintenance and if you are just starting out you will not want to have to deal with that. If you were wanting to eventually get a guitar that has a Floyd Rose, I would wait until you are past the beginner stage of guitar to purchase one.
The most important aspect of buying a guitar is making sure you buy the guitar that feels good in your hands. You don't want a guitar to feel uncomfortable in your hands especially if you're going to be playing it for years to come. Everyone is different as far as what guitar feels the best for them. The best way to find the right guitar would be to go your local guitar store and sit down with a few guitars. Have an employee help you out when you are looking so they can give you specific details about the guitar. You'll know when you have found the right one because you will be gravitated back to it after trying out other guitars.